A comprehensive introduction to fiber optic connectors

A comprehensive introduction to fiber optic connectors
Post Date:2024-06-27,

What is the fiber optic connector?

Fiber optic connector is a device for detachable (active) connection between optical fiber and optical fiber. It precisely connects the two end faces of the optical fiber, so that the optical energy output from the transmitting optical fiber can be coupled to the receiving optical fiber to the receiving optical fiber as much as possible, and minimize the impact on the system due to its intervention of the optical link. This is the light. Basic requirements for fiber connectors. To a certain extent,fiber optic connectors affect the reliability and performance of the optical transmission system.
A comprehensive introduction to fiber optic connectors

What are the four types of fiber optic connector?

The following are four common types of fiber optic connectors:
FC fiber optic connector

This kind of connector was first developed by NTT in Japan. FC is the abbreviation of Ferrule Connector, indicating that its external strengthening method is a metal sleeve, and the fastening method is a screw buckle. In the earliest, the docking end surface of the ceramic pin used in the FC type connector is the plane contact mode (FC). This kind of connector is simple in structure, easy to operate and easy to make, but the optical fiber is more sensitive to dust, and it is easy to produce Fresnel reflection, so it is difficult to improve the return loss performance. Later, this type of connector was improved, and a spherical pin (PC) was adopted, and the external structure remained unchanged, which greatly improved the performance of insertion loss and return loss.

SC type fiber optic connector

This is an fiber optic connector developed by NTT in Japan. The shell is rectangular, and the structural size of the pin and coupling sleeve used is exactly the same as that of the FC type. Among them, the end face of the pin is mostly PC or APC grinding; the fastening method adopts the plug-and-pin latch without rotation. This kind of connector is cheap, easy to plug and unplug, small fluctuation of intervention loss, high compressive strength and high installation density.

LC type fiber optic connector

The LC connector is researched and developed by the famous Bell Research Institute and is made of a modular jack (RJ) latch mechanism with convenient operation. The size of the pin and sleeve used is half the size of ordinary SC, FC, etc., which is 1.25mm. This can improve the density offiber optic connectors in the optical fiber distribution frame. At present, in terms of single-mode SFF, LC-type connectors have actually dominated, and the application of multi-mode has also grown rapidly.

ST type fiber optic connector

ST connectors use torsional methods to achieve optical fiber connection, which is suitable for using connectors in manufacturing ICT equipment and other systems. It is a connector commonly used in local area networks and CATV networks, and can also be used in the medical, military and aviation fields.

A comprehensive introduction to fiber optic connectors

The above four fiber optic connector types have their own characteristics and are suitable for different application scenarios. In practical applications, choosing the right fiber optic connector type is essential to ensure the performance and reliability of the optical communication system.

What is the difference between LC and SC fiber optic connectors?

The difference between LC and SC fiber jumper:

1. Different interfaces:
The SC interface is a blue large square port, and the shell is rectangular; the LC interface is a small blue square port.
2. Different connection methods:
The SC connector shell is rectangular, which is directly plugged and connected to the SC coupler without rotation; the LC connector is used to connect the SFP optical fiber module and adopts a convenient modular jack (RJ) latch mechanism.
3. Different uses:
SC is most used on router switches; LC is commonly used on routers.
Connection method: The SC connector is a standard square connector, which needs to be rotated 90 degrees to insert; while the LC connector is a compact square connector, which can be inserted without rotation.
4. Insertion loss is different:
Under the same conditions, the insertion loss of SC is slightly greater than that of LC.
5. The pulling force is different: the pulling force of the LC connector is greater than that of the SC connector, which means that the LC connector may be more difficult to pull out when the connection needs to be disconnected.
6. Different durability: Due to the design and material of the LC connector, it is more durable and less likely to be damaged than the SC connector.
Different application fields: In some specific applications, such as telecommunications and data centers, LC connectors may be more popular because they are easier to insert and pull out. However, SC connectors are more common in many other applications, such as home and office networks.

How to choose an fiber optic connector?

The selection of fiber optic connectors should pay attention to the performance of fiber optic connectors, the performance, interchangeability, repeatability, tensile strength, temperature and insertion times of the first fiber optic connector.

1) Optical performance

The requirements for the optical performance of fiber optic connectors are mainly the two most basic parameters, insertion loss and return loss.

2) Interchangeability and repeatabilit

Optical fiber connectors are universal passive devices. For the same type of fiber optic connectors, they can generally be used in any combination and can be used repeatedly. The additional losses imported are generally in the range of less than 0.2dB.

3) Tensile strength

For well-made fiber optic connectors, it is generally required that their tensile strength should not be less than 90N.

4) Temperature control

Temperature index is an indicator that cannot be ignored when selecting fiber optic connectors.fiber optic connectors are usually required to work normally at a temperature of -40℃ to +70℃.

5) Connection method and connector type

Select the appropriate connection method and connector type according to the specific application scenario. Common fiber optic connectors include SC, FC, LC, ST, etc. Each connector has its own specific uses and advantages.

6) Number of plugs and unplug

The fiber optic connector used now can basically be plugged in more than 1,000 times.

7) Single-mode or multi-mode

Select single-mode or multi-mode fiber according to transmission requirements. Single-mode optical fiber is suitable for long-distance transmission, while multi-mode optical fiber is suitable for short- and medium-distance communication systems.

A comprehensive introduction to fiber optic connectors

8) Scalability and adaptability

Considering the future expansion and upgrade needs, choose fiber optic connectors with good scalability and adaptability to reduce future costs.

9) Industry standards and compatibility

Select connectors that meet industry standards to ensure equipment compatibility with different suppliers and reduce the cost of subsequent updates and replacements.

Why is the fiber optic connector the most commonly used connector in the network?

Fiber optic connectors are popular in the network applications because of the following characteristics:
Low insertion loss: The insertion loss of fiber optic connectors is very low, usually below 0.1dB, which can ensure the transmission quality of optical signals.
High return loss: The return loss of fiber optic connectors is very high, usually above 60dB, which can avoid the reflection and interference of optical signals.
Strong durability: The durability of the fiber optic connector is very strong, which can withstand multiple plugging and use, and has a long service life.
Easy installation: The installation of the fiber optic connector is very convenient. You only need to insert two optical fibers into the connector.
Wide range of application:fiber optic connectors are suitable for various optical fiber transmission systems, including communication, radio, television, medical, military and other fields.
Strong anti-interference: The anti-interference of fiber optic connectors is very strong, which can avoid problems such as electromagnetic interference and lightning interference.
Because of the performance of fiber optic connectors,fiber optic connectors have become the most commonly used connectors in the network.


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